According to a report in the Jakarta Post, Governor Anies Baswedan is drafting a gubernatorial regulation to ban single-use plastic bags in Jakarta. The draft would come into effect in January 2019.
Once the regulation is legalized, the Jakarta Environment Agency will organize an awareness campaign on the ban of plastic bags for the first six months. Afterwards, retailers, plastic producers and merchants that still issue single-use plastic bags will be fined between IDR 5 – 25 million (USD 350 – 1,750).
Around 14% of waste produced in Jakarta daily are plastics and 1% of the plastics are non-degradable, single-use plastic bags. The Jakarta Environment Agency has been promoting environmentally friendly bags at retailers and traditional markets and started exchanging plastic bags with green bags.
In December 2018, the popular tourist island of Bali in Indonesia banned single-use plastics like shopping bags, styrofoam and straws
(Source: The Jakarta Post)
Following the 2018 Brazzaville declaration to promote better management and conservation of the world’s largest tropical peatlands, Indonesia, Congo and Peru, three countries with extensive tropical peatland areas, announced a collaboration to form the International Tropical Peatland Center (ITPC) in Jakarta. Indonesia will host an interim secretariat, coordinated by Ministry of Environment and Forestry and assisted by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).
The ITPC will serve as a hub to connect different stakeholders, coordinating and supporting collaborative international relationships in strategies and practices for tropical peatland management. It will also carry out and disseminate scientific research and become a center of excellence for tropical peatland research to support policy development and provide capacity building and technical services.
For the long-term plan until 2025, the center aims to govern peatland knowledge to ensure sustainable ecosystems and human well being for national and international benefits. This include harnessing economic and environmental values of peatlands such as tourism, growing betel nut and paddy, collecting medicinal plants, fishing and hunting across the three countries. In the first year, the center plans to consult all stakeholders to map challenges and opportunities, contributions and commitments and the establishment of the secretariat in Bogor, Indonesia. In 2019, the center will also begin research on broad aspects of peatland management and establishing demonstration plots in Indonesia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Republic of Congo and Peru.
Indonesia is currently at a corrective period, following intensive large-scale agriculture, draining, severe fires and haze that significantly degraded peatland areas. The country is rewetting over two million hectares of dried out peatlands. The private sector could be involved in the restoration efforts.
(Sources: International Tropical Peatland Center; Forest News; Tempo)
The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, issued its inaugural Indonesian Rupiah Komodo green bond, raising IDR 2 trillion (USD 134 million) to combat climate change. The proceeds will finance underlying infrastructure and climate-related projects in Indonesia.
The five-year green bond will be listed on both the London Stock Exchange and the Singapore Stock Exchange. It will support the local-currency market in Indonesia, funding the first-ever green bond issued in Indonesia by an IFC client, Bank OCBC NISP.
The issuance of Rupiah Komodo Green Bond was a significant milestone for IFC and Indonesia helping the private sector manage foreign exchange risk through local-currency financing, while growing climate-smart business.
Since the launch of the Green Bond Program in 2010, IFC has raised billions of dollars for clean energy, climate-smart cities, green buildings and green finance in the Asia Pacific region. In the fiscal year that ended June 30, 2018, IFC’s Green Bond Program has supported 52 projects, a significant increase from 32 projects in fiscal year 2017.
IFC led World Bank Group support for Fiji to become the first emerging market in the world to issue a sovereign green bond, raising USD 50 million to help the country adapt to a changing climate. IFC was also the sole investor in the BDO Unibank Inc.’s USD 150 million green bond, the first to be issued by a commercial bank in the Philippines and IFC’s first such investment in a financial institution in the region. In another first, IFC issued a USD 90 million peso-denominated green bond to support capital markets and climate-smart investments in the Philippines. In Vietnam, where only about 35 percent of the population is connected to piped water, IFC lent $15.3 million to one of the first private sector water companies, DNP Water JSC, to increase availability of clean water for urban households and residents in provincial cities.
(Sources: The Jakarta Post; The Guardian; IFC)
PT Phapros, a large Indonesian pharmaceutical company, has installed two propane (R290) chillers at its production facility in Semarang, Central Java. The R290 chillers were produced by a local company, Air Conditioning and Chiller (AICOOL). The new chillers will save the company about IDR 440 million (USD 26,300) per year and use approximately 151.078 kWh of electricity per year, as compared to its existing R134a units which needs 545.387 kWh of electricity per year.
The commissioning of R290 is part of the Green Chillers Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) project. It is a sustainability initiative launched by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) in Indonesia in 2014. The project is supported by the Directorate General of New and Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation (EBTKE), Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ).
The goal of the project is to excite the development of green cooling technologies in Indonesia through pilot projects, training, certification and creating standards. MEMR aims to include more industries to embrace hydrocarbon-based technology because of its energy efficiency.
The Indonesian and Japan government have partnered to collaborate in Citarum river conservation to make its water drinkable by 2025. The Indonesian Coordinating Ministry of Maritime Affairs will oversee the seven-year project. The revitalisation project is also backed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Asian Development Bank (ADB) which have pledged USD 500 million in 2009.
In March 2018, President Widodo signed a regulation for setting up a special taskforce consisting of different ministries, officials, police and military personnel, to focus on the river’s clean-up. A roadmap had been signed back in 2013 but there was lack of coordination between the involved institutions.
Citarum has been dubbed as the most polluted river in the world, despite providing life to around 28 million people. The water is utilised to irrigate paddy fields, sustain fisheries and generate 2 GW of hydropower, other than supporting daily activities.
The three focal points involved in Citarum cleaning are natural waste, domestic waste and industrial waste. The Environment and Forest Ministry is responsible for replanting trees along affected areas, while government focuses on its ongoing effort to deploy military personnel for clean-up, educate public and enforce factories to use wastewater management plan. Japan, on the other hand, will focus on administering technology transfer for industrial waste processing.
(Sources: Antara News; Channel News Asia)
Sarana Multi Infrastruktur (SMI), a state-owned infrastructure financing company that plays an active role in facilitating infrastructure development across Indonesia, has become the first corporate entity to issue green bonds in Indonesia. The green bonds were listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange on 10 July 2018. SMI issued IDR 500 billion (approximately USD 35 million) worth of green bonds as part of the first tranche. In total, the company plans to issue IDR 3 trillion (USD 208 million) of green bonds.
The first tranche of SMI’s green bonds consists of two series, namely series A and series B. Series A, which will mature on 6 July 2021, has a principal amount of IDR 131.5 billion with a fixed interest rate of 7.55% per year. Meanwhile, series B has a principal amount of IDR 223.5 billion with a fixed interest rate of 7.8% per year. It will mature on 6 July 2023. Indonesian credit rating agency Pefindo assigned an idAAA rating to SMI’s green bonds. The AAA rating is the highest rating in Pefindo’s rating system and implies that there is a relatively low risk involved as SMI is regarded to have the ability to meet its long-term financial obligations.
The green bonds are part of the Indonesian government’s efforts to turn the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which came into effect in January 2016, into a success. According to Emma Sri Martini, President Director of SMI, the company has a strong commitment to sustainable development through the provision of financing facilities to various environmentally sound infrastructure projects in Indonesia. As such, SMI plans to allocate the proceeds of the green bond issuance to several environmentally-friendly projects, including renewable energy, environment-friendly transportation, and clean water. There will be a focus on projects in the eastern part of Indonesia.
SMI’s green bonds have been accredited by the Green Climate Fund, set up by the 194 countries who are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to help developing countries limit or reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adapt to climate change. The Green Climate Fund listed SMI as the first Indonesian corporate institution to be accredited in the South East Asian region.
The World Bank Group, as one of the pioneers of the green bond market with a total value of more than USD 11 billion of issuance, has provided technical assistance with CICERO (Norway-based Center for International Climate Research) to PT SMI in preparing a green bond framework that is aligned with the internationally-developed Green Bond Principles and ASEAN Green Bond Standards. This has established Indonesia as one of the first South East Asian countries to adopt both standards.
(Sources: The Jakarta Post; PTSMI; Indonesia Investments)
In June 2018, Jakarta-based Asia Pulp & Paper (APP), one of the biggest producers of pulp, paper and packaging in the world, launched a new water security and sustainable living project on Indonesia’s Pari Island (Thousand Islands), which includes improving water resources technology, waste management and providing the community with training on sanitation and hygiene. As the island primarily depends on tourism, this project will also be focusing on education programmes, teaching tourists to how to use water smartly and reduce waste.
The current project builds on the former “Community Education to Raise Awareness on Water Security and Water Quality in Small Islands” programme, which was competed on Pari Island last year.
As the Chair of the Indonesia Water Mandate Working Group (IWMWG) under the Indonesia Global Compact Network (IGCN), the APP, in collaboration with the United Nations Educational, Scientific, Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) Office in Jakarta, Habitat for Humanity Indonesia and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), is seeking solutions that would offer better qater quality and management by utilising the lessons learned and recommendations made on Pari Island.
APP’s initiative coincides with this year’s World Environment Day theme #BeatPlasticPollution, working with smaller communities to strive for a waste-free water supply. Plastic pollution has become one of the most pressing environmental issues. In Indonesia, it is estimated that 1.3 million tonnes of plastic waste ends up in the sea waters.
APP plans to expand the programme to other island communities in the country by adopting and further developing the recommendations. Potential communities include the Komodo UNESCO World Heritage site and Biosphere Reserve, the Wakatobi UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, and the Berbak-Sembilang proposed UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Through the multi-stakeholder approach, APP hopes its efforts will support the country reach its goal of a 70% reduction in its plastic debris by the end of 2025.
(Sources: Asia Pulp & Paper; Cision)
The Indonesian Governemnt is in the process of producing and publishing the first State of Indonesia`s Forests (national SOFO) report. The Ministry of Environment and Forestry is collaborating with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN) for the same. The first draft is under a technical review, an updated draft will come up later this month. The report is expected to be launched at end of June 2018, in a soft launching ceremony in Indonesia. The Minister of Environment and Forestry Siti Nurbaya will present the "State of Indonesia Forest" at the 24th session of the FAO Committee on Forestry (COFO) in Rome, July, 2018. FAO has been supporting the Indonesia SOFO process since October 2017.
The report will provide information on the state of Indonesia’s forestry resources, and the efforts of the Indonesian Government to democratize the allocation of forestry resources.
The National SOFO publication draft comprises six chapters: (1) Introduction, (2) An overview of Indonesia’s forest area, (3) Overcoming drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, (4) Capacity building in forest management, (5) Towards a new paradigm of conservation area management, and (6) National economic contribution and the private sector, discussing the following topics of international interests: (1) Governance of forest area, 2) Climate change mitigation and adaptation, 3) Peat ecosystem management, 4) Community participation in the forest management, 5) Protection and conservation of biodiversity 6) Sustainable production forest.
(Sources: Food and Agricultural Organization)
Nusa Suriamas Group Malaysia has announced in March 2018 that it will invest RP 400 billion in a waste processing plant in Kabpaten, Semarang, Indonesia. The waste processing plant is the project being developed by PT AHN and Pemkab Semarang. The two entities signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) earlier this year, under which they plan to construct an anaerobic digestion plant, capable of processing around 200-300 tons of waste daily, generate electricity and produce fertiliser products. The plant is expected to provide a sustainable solution to Semarang Regency’s garbage problem.
The new plant will be located in Pendapa Rumah Dinas Bupati, Semarang, Indonesia. It will be using Ductor Corporation’s biological fermentation technology as part of the technology package. Both companies under the MoU expect to construct the Waste to Energy (WtE) plant within the three-year period. The project will be completed in two stages. The first stage will focus on the feasibility and design details while the second stage will conduct construction works. When completed, the plant will be the first of its kind in Indonesian and in the South East Asian region. Once operational, it will employ about 100 employees from Semarang and surrounding districts, and will help to certify Semarang as a green environment area.
(Sources: Ductor Corporation)
PDAM Tirtanadi, the Water Corporation of the Province of North Sumatra has awarded SUEZ the contract for the extension of the drinking water production plant in Medan, the third largest city in Indonesia. The extension of this BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) contract for a period of 25 years includes the funding, the building, the operation and the transfer of two additional water production units for the Medan plant. The project will improve access to drinking water for the fast-growing population of the city of Medan and will contribute to local authorities' goal of supplying more than 84% of the population with drinking water by 2020, as compared with 73.2% today.
In 2001, SUEZ finalized the first phase of the Medan drinking water production plant building, which the Group has been operating since. With a production capacity of 43,200 m3/day, this plant supplies drinking water to 150,000 inhabitants of the North Sumatra Province capital. The extension project of this plant will bring production up to 77,760 m3/day.
With this contract, SUEZ is strengthening its presence in the water management industry in Indonesia, where the Group has built over 150 water production and sanitation plants since 1953. The Group currently operates water production plants and provides drinking water services to the inhabitants of Medan (Sumatra) and Semarang (Java). Since late 2015, SUEZ has also treated wastewater from Michelin's synthetic rubber production plant in the region of Cilegon.
Indonesia is known as the world’s second biggest producer of plastic waste. In 2016, it generated 3.2 million tons of plastic waste, 1.3 million of which ended up in the ocean. Trash management is a big issue in big cities - according to the Indonesian Environment & Forestry Ministry, the roughly 250 million Indonesian citizens produce 175,000 tonnes of solid waste per day - equivalent to 64 million tonnes per year. Jakarta alone produces 6,600 tons of solid waste per day.
Under the national strategic project based on Presidential Regulation No.58/2017, Indonesia plans to construct waste-to-energy plants in major cities, such as Jakarta, Tangerang, Bandung, Semarang, Surakarta, Denpasar and Makassar. Siemens Indonesia has expressed a strong interest in investing in waste-to-energy plant projects in these cities, and is pursuing discusiions with Coordinating Ministry of the Economy as well as regional governments.
Indonesia has only just considered technology-based treatment (including WtE) as an option in solid waste management for the past 10 years. Open dumping system is already prohibited by Law since 2013, however more than 50% of Indonesia’s landfills are still struggling to switch towards a better technology. The country needs private sector support to provide advanced technology and proper financing for sustainable waste management.
(Sources: World Waste To Energy; Waste Management World: Jakarta Post)
Dow Packaging and Specialty Plastics (P&SP) together with the Indonesian Aromatic & Plastic Olefin Industry Association (INAPLAS), Indonesia Plastic Recycling Association (ADUPI), PT Polytama Propindo (Indonesia PP Manufacturing), the Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB) and the Indonesian Government have announced their joint effort to reduce marine debris and collaborate on an environmentally friendly plastic road building project. The project goal is to reduce plastics waste in the ocean by 70% by 2025. ADUPI will provide plastics waste material, and, along with Dow’s technology, the waste will be turned into sustainable roads.
The first pilot project had been successfully implemented in Depok City, West Java. A 1.8-kilometer-long of road was made by mixing 3.5 metric tons of plastic waste material into asphalt. The project resulted in a highly resistant plastic waste road, which was more durable and stronger than typical roads.
By 2019, plastics waste in Indonesia is estimated to reach 2.52 million tons, which is 14% of the country’s total waste. Therefore, the Indonesia’s Coordinating Ministry for Maritime Affairs’ has resolved to reduce marine debris, and have declared this issue as one of national importance.
(Sources: Business Insider; Dow)
The Citarum River and its tributaries in Indonesia's West Java are a vitally important water supply for both the city of Bandung and the greater Jakarta region, home to 25 million people. Its waters irrigate farms providing around 5% of the nation’s rice and feed more than 2,000 factories on its banks. But today, fishermen in boats on the basin’s rivers are more likely to be foraging for garbage to sell, as the fish have long gone. Over the past 20 years, water quality in the Citarum region has been decreasing rapidly as pollution squeezes the life from the waterways. Every day thousands of tons of household garbage and untreated industrial waste contribute to an enormous drifting mass of rubbish, completely obscuring the river in many places. The toxic waste kills the rivers, fosters disease, and clogs hydroelectric turbines. The environmental damage also leads to regular flooding in cities such as Bandung, caused by deforestation and drains blocked with garbage.
The Indonesian government’s initiatives towards the revitalization of the Citarum River have not been successful, despite a huge budget allocated to revitalize the river. The government is now asking all stakeholders to collaborate together to tackle the issue, ranging from the central and local government, companies, communities, environmental and cultural activists. Research by the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry shows that 75% of rivers in the country are seriously polluted, 52 of which are categorized as heavily polluted, and 118 watersheds out of 450 are critically polluted. A massive cleanup of its water bodies is much needed in the country, representng an enormous business opportunity for companies involved in agriculture, sanitation, wastewater management, urban planning, clean technology, and infrastructure.
(Sources: Asian Development Bank; The Diplomat)
Recognized as the biggest volcanic lake in the world at 87 kilometers long and 27 km wide , Lake Toba spans seven regencies in the province, including Humbang Hasundutan, Toba Samosir, Karo and North Tapanuli. Its unique status has led to plans to develop the region into a pollution-free international tourist attraction, one of among 10 new priority destinations in the national strategic tourism plan, which was launched recently by the government. The tourism minister promises that this will boost the local economy, and is aiming for the country to earn USD 1 billion annually from the lake's foreign visitors.
A recent study by the Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Ministry, however, discovered that pollution covers about 30% of the lake. Pollution is caused by household sewage, agricultural runoff, industrial waste, keramba (floating net cages for fish cultivation) and the flow of dirty water from nearby rivers. The study was prompted by deaths of thousands of tons of fish in kerambas, which has occured in 5 separate incidents in 2017. Local communities and environmentalists are increasingly worried the ramped-up tourism will further harm Lake Toba’s embattled ecosystem.
(Sources: Mongabay; The Jakarta Post)
A sustainable solution for the municipal solid waste (MSW) challenge in Indonesia is in progress as a groundbreaking MoU has been signed for a municipal waste management facility for refuse-derived fuel (RDF). The facility will be the first integrated MSW to RDF processing facility in Indonesia, located in Cilacap, Central Java. The collaborative effort between Holcim Indonesia, the government of Central Java province, the Ministry of Public Works & Housing, the Ministry of Environment & Forestry and the Danish government is expected to be completed by the third quarter of 2018.
The facility is designed to be able to provide treatment for up to 120 tons of domestic waste per day using bio-drying. The output will be used for fuel substitution in Holcim’s cement production in Cilacap. The project is expected to be a role model for managing municipal waste while improving the environment in Indonesia.
Holcim Indonesia, through its business unit, Geocycle, is thriving to increase the use of alternative fuel and raw material usage, including RDF. By pioneering, designing the technology concept, and operating this facility later on, it aims to contribute in providing an innovative, sustainable and economically feasible solution in the Cilacap Regency that can be replicated in other provinces in Indonesia.
(Sources: Holcim; ScandAsia)
Danone, through its Indonesian subsidiary Tirta Investama, has signed a partnership with Swedish clothing giant H&M in Indonesia to produce apparel from plastic bottle waste. Tirta Investama, which engages in the production of bottled water with brand name Aqua, is the oldest as well as the most famous water bottler in Indonesia. The agreement called Bottle2Fashion is in alignment with the Indonesian Government's target to reduce marine pollution by 70% by 2025.
Tirta Investama will act as the plastic bottle supplier and will collect plastic bottle waste from Jakarta’s Thousand Islands district. Sorting, washing and shredding processes will take place at Tirta Investama’s recycling facility in South Tangerang, to turn plastic into flakes. The flakes will then be distributed to Kahatex to process into polyester – raw material for clothings –. Kahatex is H&M’s business partner that produces apparels.
Indonesia, which is the world’s second-largest plastic polluter after China, is looking for innovative solutions to resolve its plastic waste issue.
(Sources: Fibre2Fashion; Jakarta Globe; JPNN)
Due to the alarming rate of forest fires that are occurring in Indonesia, the National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) has deployed four helicopters to diffuse water in locations affected by forest fires. Apart from this, residents and officials are also volunteering to assist in the operations. Forest fires occur during the dry season in the country. This year, it is forecast that the summer season in Indonesia might last until the end of September, bringing in possibilities of future forest and plantation haze. As of the last count, there are 282 hotspots of forest fires, and the worst-stricken is West Kalimantan. The Indonesian government has faced challenges to address the issue of fire due to several reasons, such as the vast size and inaccessibility of lands affected, limited firefighting equipment and a lack of water source, thus, the government decided to utilize aviation to carry out the firefighting operations.
Air pollution caused by the illegal burning of forests is an annual problem in Indonesia. During the worst of the 2015 haze created by forest fires in Indonesia, levels of PM2.5 were on average above 70 μg/m³ with peaks reaching 300 μg/m³ in certain areas, and affected Indonesia as well as its neighbors, Singapore and Malaysia.
(Sources: The Straits Times; Phys.org)
Indonesia is interested to apply India’s plastic recycling breakthrough in the construction sector, the plastic tar road, as part of its voluntary commitments in the United Nations (UN) to reduce marine plastic debris. It has sent an inspection team to India, coordinated with the Public Works and Public Housing Ministry and designed the model to be applied possibly in Bali for roads in rural areas. The polymer road could slash the cost of road construction and maintenance by 7 to 10%. The technology involves coating of aggregate with waste plastic before being mixed with bitumen for laying roads. The Coordinating Ministry of Maritime Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia has signed an MoU with the Centre for Solid Waste Management of Thiagarajar College of Engineering (TCE) to replace Indonesia's roads with ‘plastic roads’ between 2017 and 2025.
Aside from the plastic road project, Indonesia was also working on cleaning the ocean from plastic debris by involving young Dutch inventors who have invented technology to massively remove plastic waste from the sea.
(Sources: The Hindu, The Jakarta Post )
The Maritime Center has warned that the volume of plastic waste is significantly impacting the quality of Indonesia’s river water and oceans and is recommending that the government take steps to the reduction of plastic usage, such as a nationwide tax on plastic bags as well as a sustained public education campaign.
The World Bank estimates that each of Indonesia’s 250 million inhabitants is responsible for between 0.8 and 1kg of plastic waste per annum. After China, Indonesia is the second largest polluter of plastic waste in the ocean.
In March 2017, Indonesia pledged up to USD 1 billon a year to dramatically reduce the amount of plastic and other waste products polluting its waters. It is also considering biodegradable materials such as cassava and seaweed to produce plastic alternatives.
(Source: The Guardian)
Unilever has announced that it is planning to open a pilot plant in Indonesia later this year for the recycling of plastic pouches. The facility will test the long-term commercial viability of the 'ground-breaking' CreaSolv process, developed in collaboration with Germany's Fraunhofer Institute. This innovative pilot plant will allow the company to recycle high-value polymers from dirty, post-consumer, multi-layer sachets. The company intends to make this technology open source and hopes to scale the technology with industry partners and competitors alike, to allow others to use it.
Indonesia is pinpointed as a ‘critical’ country, with most of its annual waste tally of almost 65 million tonnes being plastics. Roughly 1.5 million tonnes ends up in the world’s oceans.
(Source: Recycling News)
Indonesia has a number of rivers and lakes that are utilized for different purposes, and that require the development and implementation of sound management plans, including the use of appropriate technologies. Generally, the water quality of rivers and lakes in Indonesia is poor. More than half of the river water samples do not meet the Class II criteria. An overview of 44 large rivers all over Indonesia shows that only four of them meet the Class II standard all over the year. The monitoring of water quality in 15 major lakes in Indonesia shows that most of them fall into the hypereutrophic category. BAPPENAS, which is the Indonesian Ministry of National Development Planning, is focusing on a program for sustainable lake management. It has organized a workshop for various stakeholders to ensure that environmentally sound technologies are used in the planning and management of freshwater bodies.
(Sources: United Nations Environment Program, Asian Development Bank, Tempo, Indonesia)
Cibubur, located in east Jakarta, has been categorized as the most polluted area in Greater Jakarta. According to data from Greenpeace Indonesia, PM 2.5 level air pollutants in this area reach 103.2 microgram per cubic meter.
Indonesia’s capital, Jakarta, is the largest city in South East Asia with a population of 10 million. It has long had a problem with air pollution. Ten years ago, the city phased out the use of leaded gasoline, but this has not helped significantly as the soaring number of vehicles in the capital has accercebated the city’s air pollution woes. The city government keeps track of pollution levels at several key locations throughout the city, but it only monitors larger-sized particulate matter known as PM10.
While the city’s environment agency acknowledges that air quality in Jakarta is poor, there is no clear plan on how to address the problem. Instead, the administration intends to continue focusing on their existing programs, namely boosting the usage of natural gas for vehicles and better enforcement of emission tests for vehicles.
(Source: The Jakarta Post)
The Waste Banks Movement proved to be effective in reducing waste volume in Jakarta. Currently, there are 400 waste banks in Jakarta, with the Jakarta authorities planning to introduce more waste banks to 1,000 community units. A waste bank is a collection point for garbage, where residents can drop their pre-sorted household waste in return for cash. At waste banks, the waste created by the household is divided into two categories – organic and non-organic. Organic waste gets turned into compost, while non-organic waste is divided further into three categories: plastic, paper, plus bottles and metal. The basic principles of waste banks are: collect, save, earn, change behavior, and enjoy a clean neighborhood. The progrm has been successful in reducing the amount of waste going to trash disposal sites everyday.
The Jakarta Government have plans to develop five intermediate treatment facilities (ITFs) near industrial estates in North and East Jakarta. The ITF is expected to process up to 2,000 tons of waste per day and turn it into energy. The first ITF will be constructed in Sunter, North Jakarta with investment around IDR 3 trillion (USD 224.9 million) in cooperation with a Finnish company. Construction of the ITF has been on the city administration’s agenda since 2011. Tenders for the projects were received in 2012 and several foreign companies were selected to handle the project in cooperation with local companies.
(Sources: The Jakarta Post, The World Bank)
Due to a recommendation by the Jakarta City Council Members, the Jakarta Environment Agency will propose 1,000 motorized garbage carts in Jakarta’s revised 2017 budget. The motorized garbage carts will replace the manual ones, and is to accelerate the transportation of waste. The motorized versions will use a hydraulic system and cost around IDR 40 million - IDR 50 million (USD 3,000 - USD 3,755.8). Many residents have complained to the city council members that they need more garbage carts and dump trucks to transport garbage into nearest temporary disposal site. It is reported that Jakarta residents produces around 7,000 tons of solid waste each day.
(Source: The Jakarta Post)
Around 1,000 cow farmers in Lembang have received biogas reactors costing USD 495.20 from CV Energi Persada. They will pay for the reactors on credit terms provided by Koperasi Peternak Sapi Bandung Utara (KSPBU) with an installment of USD 7.50 per month over five years. For years, cow farmers in Lembang, West Java have utilized manure to replace gas for their daily needs. Most of these farmers commented that the reactor is easy to use. Previously, unutilized manure was sold at USD 0.45 per sack or disposed of in rivers.
Bambang Boedi Cahyono, the producer and designer of the biogas reactors, stated that this reactor can be used to replace gas for cooking and fertilizers for plants. He started to develop the idea after manure pollution occurred in Cikapundung River in 2000. After designing the reactor, he successfully built a biogas reactor in 2004 which utilized plastics as its raw material. Between then and 2017, he has sold around 1,054 units of biogas reactors and his market has expanded to include Bandung. In 2007, he founded a workshop for biogas reactor production called Workshop Biogas BCL (Barudak Urang Sadaya).
(Sources: Tribunnews, Liputan6)
The Indonesian government has revised its regulation regarding the protection and management of peatland and the wetland areas which are a major source of carbon emissions when drained or burned. The government has issued Government Regulation (PP) No. 57/2016 which is a revision of the previous regulation PP No. 71/2014 on peatland ecosystem management and protection.
San Afri Awang from the Environmental Affairs and Forestry Ministry commented that the amendments in the Government Regulation PP 57/2016 underlined the solid commitment of President Joko Widodo to protect the peatland ecosystem. In the revised regulation, the opening up of a new land is prohibited until a zoning system for conservation and cultivation function in peatland ecosystem is established.
Local communities are also banned from setting fires around peatland areas. The government is also putting in efforts to curb forest fire by setting up an integrated forest fire control team. This fire control team, whose members come from the military and police force, will not only monitor the peatland areas but also will identify potential wildfire in the forests. Among major causes of forest fires in Indonesia are clearing and draining of peatland for oil palm and pulpwood.
The Indonesian government is looking to deploy Waste-to-Energy (WTE) technologies in the country, as garbage management is a key issue. A WTE plant has been built in Semarang with assistance from Denmark. The plant has a generation capacity of 1.3 MW. Indonesia is optimistic of developing another two WTE plants in Jakarta and Solo with 7.5 MW power generation capacity.
The Minister of Maritime Affairs, Luhut Binsar Panjaitan stated that the government will incentivize investors to set up WTE plants in the country. Electricity generated by the WTE is priced at USD 0.13 – 0.16 per kWh, which is higher than coal powered electricity. The Deputy of Maritime Sovereignty stated that there is no fixed price for WTE electricity agreed between the investors and PT PLN yet, thus, a national policy on WTE management needs to be put in place. The policy will result in the reduction in the price of electricity generated by WTE plants.
(Sources: Antaranews, Metronews, Tempo)
Following the month of Ramadhan which ended in July 2016, waste accumulated and sent to Bantar Gebang landfill (the largest landfill in Indonesia) had been piling up. Bantar Gebang with its 6,610 tons daily capacity is still having difficulties to cater the amount of garbage during the fasting month which amounts to 7,073 tons per day. The change in consumption pattern among Indonesians during Ramadhan period has resulted in a significant increase in the amount of waste generated per day.
The Director General of Trash Management, Waste, and Dangerous Toxic Materials (B3) from the Ministry of Environment and Foresty said that the government aims to manage waste treatment better and in a more systematic manner. In the meantime, the Jakarta Administration will build two Intermediate Waste Treatment Facilites (ITFs) in Sunter and Marunda located in North Jakarta to reduce the city’s over-reliance on its trash dump in Bantar Gebang.
(Sources: The Jakarta Post, Tempo)
The local government of Pontianak, West Kalimantan, has signed a MoU with two Chinese electrical companies, Shanghai Electric and Zhong Sheng Hua Tai International Energy Co Ltd. These companies will develop a Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plant which will be built in Batulayang Landfill. Both parties are looking into generating eight to ten MW of electricity per day for the public. This capacity generation will require up to 1,000 tons of waste each day.
With a limited waste generated per day by Batulayang Landfill of 350 tons, the local government will fill up the shortfall by gathering waste from palm oil processing factories nearby. A detailed discussion involving both parties incorporating feasibility studies and budget commitment for this project will be conducted. The Chinese companies are proposing to the Pontianak government to develop the plant on a 30-year Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) basis.
(Sources: Kompas, Merdeka)
More private companies have started to convert palm oil waste into biogas, including PT Sumberdaya Sewatama and Asian Agri. These companies have converted palm oil mill effluent (POME), a liquid that contains methane gas, into biogas. PT Sumberdaya Sewatama’s Chief Operating Officer stated that the company was developing two biogas plants in Kalimantan which can generate 3 MW of electricity each from palm oil waste. He explained that 1.5 – 1.7 MW of power will require an average of 60 – 90 tons of palm oil waste and the investment needed to generate 1 MW per hour is approximately IDR 1,333,300 (USD 1 million).
Asian Agri, on the other hand, has successfully developed five biogas plants around Riau, Jambi, and North Sumatera. Agri Freddy Wijaya, General Manager of Asian Agri explained that each of these plants has a generation capacity of two MW. Approximately 700 kW of electricity is required to operate each plant and the excess of 1.3 MW generated is distributed for public use. Asian Agri aims to build 20 more biogas power plants powered by palm oil waste by 2020.
(Sources: Kompas, Liputan6)